In embedded software development, reuse is recognized as the key factor for better
productivity and lower costs. In the ideal case, the product family approach makes
it possible to apply reuse on a whole range of related products. The family members
are based on a common architecture and rely heavily on reusable components, thus
freeing the developers to concentrate only on the required variation between the
products. This approach also enables the developers to focus on design instead
of implementation details.
Traditionally, however, the product family approach has been hindered by the lack
of adequate design tools. Most current design languages and tools provide little
if any support for design level reuse and domain-specific design concepts, which
are the key requirements for a successful product family solution.
The Promise of DSM
Domain-specific modeling (DSM) is an emerging technology that addresses these
issues. The basic idea of DSM is that the product family variants are described
with a domain-specific modeling language that is based on the domain itself and
the final products are automatically generated from these models. This is possible
because the models capture all static and behavioral aspects of the product. Also,
unlike the general-purpose code generators found in typical design tools, the
DSM generators are specifically implemented to support the domain concepts found
in the models.
DSM is an important mechanism for guiding development in a product family. The
domain-specific modeling language and generators, created by a few domain experts,
shift the abstraction level of designs to the product concept level, make the
product family explicit to developers and effectively set legal variation space.
Basically, this means that the domain knowledge of an expert is leveraged to the
whole development team.
Experiences from real-life cases of DSM uses have also reported more concrete
benefits. The single most important promise of DSM is order of magnitude productivity
improvements. For example, Nokia states that with DSM, it develops mobile phones
up to 10 times faster than before. Similarly, Lucent reports that domain-specific
languages improve its productivity by 3-10 times depending on the product. As
the DSM solution is based on the domain and the terminology known and used by
those working within the field, it is also easier and faster to introduce it to
DSM also contributes to the improvement of the overall quality of the product.
As the modeling language defines the variation space and the implementation is
automatically generated, there are substantially fewer errors because the need
for error-prone manual intervention is minimized.
Architecture for a DSM Environment
For a complete DSM environment with 100% code generation, three things are
required: a modeling tool with support for the domain-specific language, a code
generator and a domain-specific framework. This basic architecture is presented
on the left-hand side of Figure 1, with an example of a DSM environment for
developing software for digital wristwatches on the right.
The role of the modeling language in a DSM environment is pivotal: as a representation
of static and dynamic domain concepts and semantics, a modeling language defines
maximum variation space for the product family. The language also ensures that
developers follow the family approach and de facto standards. The task of the
code generator is to translate the models into the required output format and
to provide variation for output formats. The task of the domain-specific framework
is then to provide the DSM environment with an interface for the target platform
and programming language by providing the atomic implementations of commonalities
and variabilities as framework-level primitive services and components.
Building a DSM Environment
The starting point for building a DSM environment is to identify the commonalities
and variabilities among possible family members and refine these variation points
with static and dynamic variation attributes. These common elements and variation
attributes are then allocated to the DSM environment architecture. In order to
do this, two aspects need to be considered. First is the computational model that
is suitable for specifying the required variation. The second aspect is the required
code generator output and its target platform and implementation language.
These two aspects affect each other: sometimes the computational model may require
a certain kind of generator output (e.g. a state machine as a computational model
requires a state machine implementation or vice versa). The computational model(s)
of variation and underlying platform for generator output are then represented
with the elements of DSM environment, modeling languages, generator and domain-specific
The first part of a DSM environment to be implemented is the modeling language.
As the language is the only part that is visible to the user and thereby provides
the user interface for the development, it has to maintain control over all possible
variations within the product family. The modeling language is also the main factor
for increasing productivity. Therefore it should operate on the highest achievable
level of abstraction and should be kept as independent from actual code as possible.
It may initially appear easier to build the language as an extension on top of
the existing code base or platform but this usually leads to a rather limited
level of abstraction and mapping to domain concepts.
We have found that the best way to design a domain-specific modeling language
is to base it on some well-known model of computation, like state machine, data
model or flow model, and enrich this model with domain-specific concepts. For
example, the modeling language for watch development (as illustrated in Figure
1), is based on the computational model of a state machine, which was complemented
with the following domain-specific extensions:
- Transitions between states may be initiated by user actions only (hence
the button symbol as a trigger).
- The actions during a state transition may operate on time units only, and
there is only a limited set of legal operations.
- Each state is associated with a display function that defines how the time
units are shown on display when the state is active.
In most cases it is not possible to cover all variation within just one type of
model and modeling language. This raises the important questions of model organization,
layering, integration and reuse. Typically, efforts to develop a modeling language
start with a flat model structure that has all concepts arranged on the same level
without any serious attempts to reuse them. As the complexity of the model grows,
the flat models are rarely suitable for presenting hierarchical and modularized
software products. Therefore, we need to be able to present our models in a layered
An important criterion for layering is the nature of the variability. For example,
a typical pattern we have found within the product families is to have a language
based on a behavioral computational model (like the state machine) to handle the
low-level functional aspects of the family members and to cover the high-level
configuration issues with a language based on a static model (like data and component
models). Another aspect affecting the layer structure is reuse. The idea of reuse-based
layering is to treat each model as a reusable component for the models on the
higher level. In this type of solution, the reusable element has a canonical definition
that is stored somewhere and referenced where needed.
To enable the code generator to produce completely functional and executable output
code, the models should capture all static and behavioral variation of the target
product while the domain framework should provide the required low-level interface
with the target platform. As the translation process itself is complex enough,
the generator should be kept as simple and straightforward as possible. It is
also difficult to maintain variability factors within the generator—especially
when the family domain and architecture evolve continuously. Thus, before including
any variability aspect into the code generator, evaluate the nature of the variation
carefully: if something seems difficult to support with the generator, consider
raising it up to the modeling language or pushing it down to the framework. Also
bear in mind that the developer should do all basic decision-making at the model
According to our experiences, the generator is a proper place for only two kinds
of variation. As each target platform or programming language requires, at least
partially, a unique generator implementation anyway, it is widely acceptable to
handle the target variation within the generator. Another suitable way to use
the generator for managing variability is to build higher-level primitives by
combining low-level primitives during generation.
The final part of the environment is the domain framework. In many cases the differentiation
between the target platform and the domain framework remains unclear. We have
learned to rely on the following definition: the target platform includes general
hardware, operating system, programming languages and software tools, libraries
and components that are found on the target system. The domain framework consists
of any additional component or code that is required to support code generation
on top of them. It must be noted that in some cases the additional framework is
not needed because the code generator can interface directly with the target platform.
We have found that, architecturally, frameworks consist of three layers. The components
and services required to interface with the target platform are on the lowest
level. The middle level is the core of the framework and it is responsible for
implementing the counterparts for the logical structures presented by the models
as templates and components for higher-level variability. The top-level of the
framework provides an interface with models by defining the expected code generation
output, which complies with the code and templates provided by the other framework
example of generated code in Figure 2 illustrates how a domain framework can
support the code generation. It is the implementation of the state machine presented
in Figure 1. As the watch domain framework provides primitives defining the
state machine and operating on the time units, the required generator output
remains reasonably simple and achievable.
Another issue related to the development of DSM environments is the tool support.
Traditionally there have not been any cost-effective ways to implement complete
DSM environments with the required editors and generators. More recently, however,
tools with customizable modeling languages and code generators have emerged. These
tools provide built-in support for both defining the DSM environments and applying
them in product development. As MetaCase tools like MetaEdit+ or Ptech, the effort
of building complete DSM environments is reduced to a few man-weeks.
DSM provides major benefits for product family development. These benefits are
not easily, if at all, available for developers in other current product family
approaches: reading textual manuals about the product family, mapping family aspects
to code or code visualization notations, browsing components in a library, or
trying to follow a (hopefully) shared understanding of a common architecture or
As an investment, the creation of a DSM environment of course requires experts’
time and resources, but we have found that the investment pays itself back by
the time the third variant is created. This approach also scales from small teams
to large globally distributed companies. Interestingly, the amount of expert resources
needed to build and maintain a language and generators does not grow with the
size of product family and/or number of developers. MetaCase Consulting
+358 14 4451 400.